Manipur Board 12th Syllabus for Economics


Important Topics


PART – I: Macro Economics


  • Macroeconomics

  • Some basic concepts of macroeconomics Business Cycle

  • Aggregate Demand, Aggregate Supply, Consumption Goods, Capital Goods, Final Goods, Intermediate Goods, Stocks and Flows Gross Investment and Depreciation


National Income and Related Aggregates: Basic Concepts and Measurement

  • Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.

  • Concepts and aggregates related to National Income: Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), etc.

  • Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income; Real and Nominal GDP; GDP and Welfare.

  • Simple Numerical Examples.


Theory of Income and Employment: Basic Concepts and Determination of Income and Employment.

  • Aggregate Demand, Aggregate Supply and their components.

  • Consumption Function and Investment Function

  • Propensity to Consume and Propensity to Save, Equilibrium Output, Types of Unemployment.


Money and Banking

  • Money – Meaning, Functions, and types.

  • Supply of money

  • Money and Credit Creation by Commercial banks.

  • Central bank – Meaning and Functions.


Monetary Policy, Fiscal Policy and Government Budget

  • Monetary Policy – Meaning, types and tools.

  • Fiscal Policy – Meaning, types and tools.

  • Government budget

  • Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.

  • Various measures of government deficit – revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit; their meaning and implications.


PART – II: Indian Economic Development


  • Parameters of Development

  • Brief introduction of the state of the Indian economy on the eve of independence.

  • Main features, problems and policies of Agriculture and Foreign Trade.


Structural Changes in the Indian Economy After Liberalization

  • Meaning, Need, Significance and Features of Liberalization, Globalization


Current Challenges facing Indian Economy

  • Poverty – absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment

  • Rural development

  • Human Capital Formation

  • Growth of Education Sector in India.

  • Informal Economy

  • Sustainable Economic Growth: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment.


Planning and Economic Development in India

  • Objectives, Targets, Achievements and drawbacks of different Five Year Plans in India (A brief account).


Economic Growth and Development

  • Economic Growth and Development-Meaning and Difference

  • Comparative study of

  • India and China on the following indicators : (i) Unemployment, (ii) GDP growth, etc.